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Glossary

Term
Description
A53A, A53B, A53F, A106
ASTM grades of carbon steel pipe
Aboard
on or in a vessel
Abreast
when a vessel runs alongside of another vessel
Adrift
a vessel floating with the wind and tide
AGA
American Gas Association
Aground
a vessel that is touching bottom and is unable to move
Aircraft Carrier
Carries airplanes, allows planes to takeoff from and land on the ship
AISI
American Iron and Steel Institute
Anchor
a heavy object attached to a vessel by a cable or rope and cast overboard to keep the vessel in place either by its weight or its flukes, which grip the bottom
ANSI
American National Standards Institute. Formerly the ASA American Standards Association
API
American Petroleum Institute
ASME
American Society for Mechanical Engineers
ASTM
American Society of Testing Materials
AWWA
American Water Works Association
Bales
Term associated with banded lifts of pipe.
Barlow's Formula
An equation which shows the relationship of internal pressure to allowable stress, nominal thickness and diameter.
Beam
the width of the vessel at its widest point
Bevel
The angle formed between the prepared edge of the end of the pipe and a plane perpendicular to the surface of the member. The standard bevel for line pipe is 30o to facilitate welding.
Billet
A solid semi finished round or square product that has been hot worked by forging, rolling or extrusion. For seamless tubular products, the billet is heated and pierced to form a tube hollow.
Black Pipe
Denotes lacquered OD finish (as opposed to bare or galvanized)
Boom
a large spear extending from a mast to hold or extend the foot of a sail
Bow
the forward end of the vessel
Box
Internal (female) threaded end.
Brinell
Hardness testing system which measures indentation of the subject using a  standard weight, shaped point.
BTC
Buttress threaded and coupled.
Bulk Carrier
Carries bulk goods, often grains.
Bulkhead
wall
Bulwarks
the raised portion of the sides of a vessel around the main deck to prevent crew, cargo, and passengers from being washed overboard
Bundles
Term associated with practice of packaging NPS 1 1/2" and smaller pipe. Pieces per bundle vary depending upon size.
Burst
Internal pressure at which tube will yield - often tested hydrostatically.
Burst Test
A destructive hydraulic test employed to determine actual yield strength and ultimate strength of both seamless and welded pipe.
Butt-weld Pipe
(See Continuous Weld)
Cable Layer Ship
Ship which lays cable on the ocean floor
CAD
Computer aided design
CAM
Computer aided manufacturing
Capsize
to upset or overturn
Car Carrier
Transports cars
Cargo Ship
Any ship which transports cargo
Casing
Pipe used as a structural retainer for the walls of a drilled hole.
CFT
Hundred foot (sometimes used in pricing, i.e. $425.97/cft vs. $4.2597/ft.)
Chamfer
A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner.
Channel
a broad straight, especially one that connects two seas. for example: the English Channel
Chemical Properties
Normally associated with a limited number of chemical elements; however, depending upon the specification, practically a full analysis may be required. Minimum or maximum limits are established in Standards.
Chemical Tanker
Transports tanks of chemicals
Cleat
a fitting of wood or metal with two horns used for securing lines
CNC
Computer numerically controlled - refers to machinery.
Cold Drawn
Pipe or tubing which is pulled through a die to reduce diameter and wall.  This process usually produces closer tolerances and higher strength.
Container Ship
Ship that transports containers
Corvette
Small, maneuverable, lightly armed war ship
Coupling
Threaded sleeve used to connect two lengths of pipe.
Coxswain
person in charge while on a lifeboat
Crane Support Ships
Ships with cranes attached; help other ships load and unload cargo
Crest
the top of a wave
Cruise Ship
Ship people go on for vacations
Cut Lengths
Pipe cut to a specific length as ordered.
CW
Continuous Weld a method of producing small diameter pipe (1/2 - 4")
CWT
Hundred Weight.  Often used in handling or trucking pricing, i.e. .30/cwt load out charge or $1.65/cwt (freight) with a minimum such as 30,000#.
Dead Reckoning
the practice of estimating a vessel's position by considering courses and distances made after departure from a known position
Derelict
a vessel abandoned or forsaken on the high seas
Die Stamping
Permanent marking placed on pipe as required by some specifications.
Dock
a platform, landing area that ships can pull up to to load and unload cargo.
Double Extra Strong
Standard pipe weight designation (XXS). Sometimes described as XXH (double extra heavy).
Draft
the depth of water required to float a vessel
Dredges
Retrieves minerals and other materials from the bottom of the ocean
Drift
Minimum ID clearance verified by pulling a mandrel of known size through a length of pipe.
Drilling Vessels
Vessels which can drill for oil while at sea.  see the gallery
DRL
Double Random Length (35' minimum average or as defined in specifications).
Drogue
a type of sea anchor used to stabilize a vessel in dangerous seas
DSAW
Double Submerged Arc Weld.
Ductility
The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing, being measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test or by other means.
Eddy Current Testing
Non destructive testing method in which eddy current flow is induced in the test object. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques.
Elongation
In tensile testing, the increase in the gage length, measured after fracture of the specimen within the gage length, usually expressed as a percentage of the original gage length.
EMI
Electromagnetic inspection a method of determining wall thickness and detecting imperfections in steel tubes.
ERW
Electric Resistance Weld. See High Frequency Welding.
EUE
External upset ends forging of ends on (API) tubing and drill pipe to provide additional thickness for strengthening connections.
EW
Electric Weld. See High Frequency Weld.
Expanded Pipe
Pipe which has been enlarged circumferentially by mechanical or hydraulic pressure.
Extra Strong
Standard pipe weight designation (XS). Sometimes described as XH (extra heavy).
Fathom
a measurement of depth, one fathom is equal to six feet
Ferries
Transports cars short distances
Fire Boats
Boats that help put out fires on ships
Fish Catching Vessels
Vessels which Lay down nets to collect fish
Term
a pyrotechnic device used for attracting attention or indicating distress
Flattening Test
A quality test for pipe in which a specimen is flattened between parallel plates that are closed to a specified height.
FLD
Full Length Drift (as opposed to "end drift") usually performed as part of used tubing or casing (OCTG) inspection.
Flounder
to fill with water and sink at sea
Flush Joint
Connection with male and female threads cut directly into the pipe (as opposed to T&C).  This provides the same ID and OD clearance as in the middle of the tube, once lengths are joined.
FOB
Free On Board used to denote where pipe is to be provided to the buyer.
Galley
the area on a vessel containing the cooking facilities
Gangway
a passage along either side of the ship's upper deck; an opening on the side of a ship where passengers may board
Hatch
a door in the roof or floor, often above a cargo hold
Headway
a vessel's forward movement
Heave
to pull on
Helm
the steering mechanism of a vessel
High Frequency Welding
A technique employed in the manufacture of electric resistance weld pipe. Typical radio frequency power for welding is supplied at 450,000 cycles/sec.
Hoist
to raise up
Hold
the lower interior part of a ship where cargo is held
Hot Stamp
Permanent marking placed on pipe as employed by manufacturer or as established by specification.
Hydrographic Survey
Testing done on the nature of waves.
Hydrostatic Test
Normal mill test as required by specifications. The pipe ends are sealed and high pressure water is introduced to predetermined pressures as required by specifications.
I.D.
Inside Diameter
Ice Breaker
Designed to break up ice for travel in Polar Regions
Impact Test
A test performed at a specified temperature (usually lower than ambient) to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of loading, usually in bending, tension or torsion. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow, as in a Charpy Test.
Ink Mark
Continuous printing identification associated with NPS 1 1/2 and smaller pipe. Detail is normally limited to the trademark and "Made in USA".
Jettison
throwing cargo and other materials overboard to lighten a vessel and help it remain afloat
Joint
One length of pipe
Junk
Chinese sailing vessel
Keel
the continuous section of a vessel running from the bow (front) to the stern (back) on which the vessel is built, the backbone of the vessel
Kip
A unit of weight equal to 1,000 pounds used to express dead weight.
Knot
a measurement of speed equal to one nautical mile (6,080 ft. per hour), one knot is equal to one and one seventh miles per hour and it is the length of one minute of longitude at the equator
Leeward
the side of the vessel opposite the side where the wind is blowing
Lifts
Term associated with separated segments of pipe (banded or unbanded for ease of handling).
Liquefied Natural Gas Carrier
Vessels that transport fuel in the form of liquefied natural gas.  In order to keep the gas in liquid form, the tanks are kept at a temperature of -260 degrees Fahrenheit.  LNGs are required to have the gas surrounded by at least two tanks in case the first one breaks.  They aren't allowed in many ports because of their large size and the huge fire hazard they pose.
LS
Limited Service pipe not meeting specification, usually rejected at the mill.
LT
Loaded Trucks used in price quotation to indicate seller pays for handling.
LTC
Long Thread and Coupling (OCTG casing connection)
Lumber Carriers
Carries large amounts of lumber
Magnetic Particle
One of several methods of non destructive testing. A non destructive method of inspection for determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials. Finely divided magnetic particles, applied to the magnetized part, are attracted to and outline the pattern of and magnetic leakage fields created by discontinuities.
Magnetic Properties
The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior where force is applied, thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical application; for example, tensile strength, elongation, hardness and fatigue limit.
Marry
to tie two lines together
Mid Weld
Two or more joints welded to form a longer one.
Nautical Mile
the standard unit of measurement for maritime navigation which equals 6,080 feet and represents one minute of latitude
Nipple
Short length of pipe (<12") threaded on both ends
Nominal
Pipe size or wall thickness as specified (not actual).  Sizes refer to approximate ID, even though OD is the fixed dimension.
Normalizing
Heating a ferrous material to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range.
NPS
A dimensionless designator for such traditional terms as "nominal diameter", "size", and "nominal size". Corresponds to actual outside diameter only in sizes 14 inches and over.
NUE
Non upset end OCTG tubing description (not as common as EUE)
O.D.
Outside Diameter
Ocean Liner
Passenger ship, crosses oceans; was supplanted by airlines
Ocean Mining Vessels
Vessels with the ability to mine for resources from the sea
Oceanographic Research
Ship for the purpose of marine research.  Often studies marine life, tides, waves, plant life, weather at sea.
OCTG
Oil Country Tubular Goods pipe made to API specifications
Offshore Supply Boats
Supplies transportation services to offshore drilling rigs
Oil Tanker
Transports oil in large tanks
Oiled
(See Black Oiled)
p.s.i.
Pounds per square inch
Panamax
Ship with maximum dimensions for fitting through the Panama Canal.  1000ft. long, 110ft. wide, 85 ft. deep
PE
Plain End
PEB
Plain End Beveled
Pickling
Pipe immersed into acid bath for removal of scale, oil, dirt, etc.
Pilot Boats
Helps ships navigate in and out of harbors
Pin
External (male) threaded end
Port Side
the left side of a vessel when facing forward
Protector
Plastic, steel or composite cap to protect threads from handling damage
Quay
a dock parallel to the shoreline and accommodating vessels on one side only
R & D
Reamed and Drifted. Pipe commonly used in water wells which has a special, heavy duty coupling and a guaranteed I.D. clearance.
Range
(R1, R2, R3) lengths of OCTG (Range 1 casing 16-25') (Range 2 casing 25-34') (Range 3 casing 34-48') (Range 1 tubing 20-24') (Range 2 tubing 28-32')
Refrigerated Ship
Ship with cargo that must be refrigerated.  Usually foodstuffs, fruit, fish,
Rockwell Hardness
Relative resistance of a metal to indentation by a diamond cone, as expressed in hardness scale units (A, B, C or G)
Roll
n Roll-off-  Transports wheeled cargo
Rolling
the motion of a ship swinging from side to side caused by the pressure of the waves on the side if the ship
SAW
Submerged arc weld a method of producing very large OD pipe
SC
Square cut plain end pipe
Schedule
Numbers assigned to different wall thicknesses of pipe (i.e. sch. 40)
SEA
Special End Area inspection to check for defects at either end of a steel tube which is also being inspected electronically.  (EMI misses the ends.)
Seaway
the navigable portion of the sea
Seaworthy
able to withstand the dangers of the sea
Sheer
the curvature of a ship's deck from bow to stern
Shoe
Sub sometimes run on bottom of casing string with special metallurgy or design to help pipe to bottom through tight or bridged spots in drill hole.
Skelp
A piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thickness, width and edge configuration, from which welded pipe is made.
SMLS
Seamless
Sounding
the act of measuring depth of water by using a lead line or a fathometer
Spec
Specification
SRL
Single Random Length (16-22 ft. for standard weight ASTM pipe or as defined in specifications).
Starboard
the right side of a vessel when facing forward
STC
Short Thread and Coupling (OCTG casing connection).
STD
Standard reference to wall thickness of line pipe (=sch. 40 for 1/8 - 10").
Stencil
Paint spray identification placed on pipe. Specification size, wall, grade, test pressure, method of manufacture and normal mill characters and mill identification are usually included; however, detail varies by specification. "Country of Origin" is included.
Stern
the back end of a vessel
Sternway
the backward motion of a vessel when it is carried or propelled backward
Stretch Reduction
A technique employed in the manufacture of continuous weld pipe and in certain instances in the manufacture of seamless and electric resistance weld pipe. It involves one or several "master" sizes which are stretch reduced or rolled under tension through a number of stands to achieve a variety of standard pipe diameters and walls.
Strip
A sheet of metal in which the length is many times the width.
Sub
A short coupling with different types and/or sizes of ends.
Submarine
Designed to travel mainly underwater
Swell
a wave
T&C
Threaded and Coupled.
T&D
Tested and Drifted one method of verifying integrity of used tubing and casing (OCTG).  "Test" refers to hydrostatic:  ends are sealed and water pumped inside to a predetermined pressure.  (See drift def. above).
TBE
Threaded Both Ends
Tender
Services another type of air or sea vessel
Tensile Strength
In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross sectional area. Also, called ultimate strength. Usually expressed in pounds per square inch.
TO
Threads Only
Tolerance
Specified allowance (plus or minus) of the given dimension of a finished product due to inaccuracies in manufacturing; usually quite small (thousandths of an inch or very small percentage) and often part of a standard such as ASTM or API.
Tool Joint
Threaded tube, usually thicker and harder, welded onto pipe to provide joint strength and durability exceeding that of flush joint or T&C connections.
Tube Round
(See Billet)
Tugboat
Pulls other boats
Ultrasonic
An electronic method of non destructive testing utilizing sound waves.
Veer
to change the direction of a vessel in reference to the wind
Victaulic
Joint grooves in the ends of pipe to accommodate a coupling.
Windward
the side of the vessel towards which the wind is blowing
XHY
Extra Heavy pipe about 50% thicker than standard (=sch. 80 for 1/8 - 8")
XXHY
Double Extra Heavy twice as thick as xhy for 1/2 - 6"
Yield Strength
The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from proportionality of stress and strain. An offset of 0.2% is used for many metals including steels.